चाणक्य नीति अंतर्राष्ट्रीय संबंधों के संदर्भ मेंं

चाणक्य नीति अंतर्राष्ट्रीय संबंधों के संदर्भ मेंं

चंद्रगुप्त मौर्य का शासन काल भारतीय इतिहास का स्वर्णयुग था इसके संस्थापक और निर्माता आचार्य चाणक्य थे जो अपनी कूटनीति के लिए विश्वविख्यात हंै। सिकन्दर के विश्वविजय का स्वप्र उन्होंने भंग कर दिया, भारत में उसके पांव नहीं जमने दिये सेल्यूकस को संधि करनी पड़ी, सम्राट चन्द्रगुप्त एक विशाल साम्राज्य के नायक बने जिसकी सीमाएं हजारों वर्ष बाद स्थापित मुगल और ब्रिटिश साम्राज्य से भी बड़ी थी, चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य के पुत्र बिन्दुसार और उनके पुत्र अशोक भी लोकप्रिय सम्राट हुए। आचार्य चाणक्य की परिकल्पना में विजय की कामना लेकर आगे बढ़ते राजा को ‘विजिगिशुÓ की संज्ञा दी गयी है, वह एक सशक्त शासक होता है जो अपनी सीमाओं की सुरक्षा में सक्षम तो होता ही है साथ ही साथ उनके विस्तार का प्रयास भी करता है। अपने दुश्मनों को पराजित करने के लिए साम, दाम, दण्ड और भेद का प्रयोग समय और परिस्थितियों को ध्यान में रखते हुए करता है देश और प्रजा का हित उसके लिए सर्वोच्च होता है, उसका सुख प्रजा के सुख में न कि अपने व्यक्तिगत स्वार्थ में- प्रजा सुखे च सुखम राज्ञ:, प्रजा हिते च हितम्:।।

आचार्य चाणक्य के मत में विजिगीषु दुश्मनों और दोस्तों से घिरा होता है जिसे उन्होंने मण्डल की संज्ञा दी सीमा से लगे हुए राज्य का शासक दुश्मन होता है, उसके दुश्मन दोस्त बनाये जा सकते हैं।

मण्डल व्यवस्था इस बात को इंगित करती है कि दूसरे देश के शासकों को केवल दुश्मन या मित्र समझना भूल है, मध्यमा और उदासीन राजाओं की भूमिका भी महत्वपूर्ण हो सकती है यह विजिगीषु की क्षमता पर निर्भर है कि उनको कैसे अपने साथ मिला पाता है, अन्य राजाओं की तरह के भी महत्वाकांक्षी हो सकते है उनसे दुश्मनी महंगी पड़ सकती है उनका साथ रहना देश के हित में हो सकता है, दुश्मन राजा चाहे सामने का हो या पीछे का उसके दुश्मनों से दोस्ती का हर सम्भव प्रयास करना चाहिए, उसके दोस्तों से सावधान रहना चाहिए और कोशिश करना चाहिए कि उनके बीच दरार पैदा हो, उनकी मित्रता टूटे और उसका लाभ उठाया जा सके, जो आज दुश्मन हैं, कल मित्र हो सकते हैं। अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय सम्बन्धों में कोई हमेशा के लिए मित्र या दुश्मन नहीं होता।

विजिगीषु जब दुश्मन पर हमला करना चाहता है तो उसे इस बात से आश्वस्त होना होगा कि दुश्मन को उसके मित्रों से मदद नहीं मिल पायेगी इसके लिए युद्ध के पहले उसे दुश्मन और उसके मित्र के बीच में तनाव की स्थिति पैदा करनी होगी। इसके लिये गुप्तचरों का जाल बिछाकर, उनकी प्रजा में और अधिकारियों में गलतफ हमी पैदा करके विद्वेष पैदा करना, उपद्रव कराना, उनकी सेना में फू ट डालना जैसे तरीकों का इस्तेमाल किया जा सकता है। विजय की आकांक्षा से छेड़े हुए युद्ध में लक्ष्य का महत्व है न कि साधनों का। यह समय साधनों के औचित्य पर विचार करने का नहीं होता, विजिगीषु पर जब दुश्मन के हमले की आशंका होती है तो वह अपने मित्र राजाओं को दुश्मन पर हमला करने के लिये तैयार रहने को प्रेरित कर सकता है।

बारह प्रकार के राजाओं के घेरे को राजप्रकृति का नाम दिया गया है। इसके अतिरिक्त प्रत्येक राजा के अपने घेरे होते हैं। हर घेरे में पांच तत्व की मान्यता है-अमात्य (मंत्री), जनपद(देश), दुर्ग (किला) और कोश (खजाना) प्रत्येक राजा के पांच तत्वों को मिलाकर कुल 60 तत्व होते हैं जिसे द्रव्य प्रकृति का नाम दिया गया है। बारह राजा और साठ तत्वों को मिलाकर कुल 62 तत्व बनते है जो मण्डल (राजाओं के घेरे) को पूरा करते हैं। विजिगीषु को युद्ध या शान्ति का निर्णय अपनी और दुश्मनों की ताकत का सही अंदाज लेकर करना चाहिए। शान्ति लाभदायक है यदि युद्ध से लाभ नजर नहीं आता। अपने दुश्मन से अधिक ताकतवर राजा के साथ संधि लाभप्रद होता है। इसके लिए ताकतवर राजा से अच्छे सम्बन्ध रखने के लिए हर सम्भव प्रयत्न करना चाहिए।

जब दो बड़े दुश्मन हो तो उनमें से जो अधिक ताकतवर हो उससे संधि कर लेना हितकर है। आवश्यक हो तो दोनों से संधि की जा सकती है। यह व्यवस्था स्थायी नहीं समझनी चाहिए। अवसर आने पर दोहरी नीति अपनायी जा सकती है जैसे दोनों दुश्मनों में फूट डालना, और उनमें तनाव पैदा करना, किसी तीसरे राजा से दोस्ती करना जो उन दोनों के विरूद्ध हो, मध्यम और उदासीन राजाओं का सहयोग लेना आदि हर स्थिति में निर्णय देश के हित में होना चाहिए व्यक्तिगत लाभ और सम्बन्धों को देखकर नहीं।

विजिगीषु के दुश्मन दो प्रकार के होते हैं। एक तो स्वाभाविक दुश्मन होता है जो बराबर का ताकतवर है और जिसकी सीमाएं देश से लगी हुई हैं। दूसरा काल्पनिक दुश्मन है जो इतना ताकतवर नहीं है कि युद्ध करके जीत जाये किन्तु दुश्मनी का भाव रखता है। दुश्मनों से मित्रता की कोशिश करता है। कुछ राजाओं से मित्रता विशेष कारणों से की जा सकती है जिससे अपने देश का लाभ हो या व्यापार में, सैन्य शक्ति बढ़ाने में कुछ पड़ोसी राज्य ऐसे भी हो सकते हैं जिनके सर पर दुश्मनों की तलवार लटकती रहती है, जो कमजोर है उन्हें वसल की संज्ञा दी गयी है।

राजा शक्तिशाली होना चाहिए, तभी राष्ट्र उन्नति करता है। राजा की शक्ति के तीन प्रमुख स्रोत हैं – मानसिक, शारीरिक और आध्यात्मिक। मानसिक शक्ति उसे सही निर्णय के लिए प्रेरित करती है, शारीरिक शक्ति युद्ध में वरीयता प्रदान करती है और आध्यात्मिक शक्ति उसे ऊर्जा देती है, प्रजा हित में काम करने की प्रेरणा देती है। कमजोर और विलासी प्रवृति के राजा शक्तिशाली राजा से डरते हैं। शक्तिशाली दुश्मन राजा को कमजोर करने के लिए विषकन्याओं का उपयोग भी किया जा सकता है जो उन्हें विलासिता में डूबाकर कमजोर कर दें।

मित्रता उन राज्यों से बढ़ाई जानी चाहिये जो विश्वास योग्य हों। यदि अपने से अधिक शक्तिशाली राज्य से मित्रता की जाती है तो इसे स्थायी मानकर नहीं चलना चाहिए। स्थायित्व देश की सैन्य और आर्थिक शक्ति के विकास में सिद्ध हो सकती है। दुहरी नीति उन परिस्थितियों में अपनायी जानी चाहिए जब एक दुश्मन से युद्ध का मन हो और दूसरे को न छेडऩे या दोस्त बनाने की सोच हो। मित्र राष्ट्र ऐसी स्थिति में सहयोगी हो सकते हैं।

अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय सम्बन्धों में निरपेक्षता का भी महत्त्व है। जब शान्ति के लिये संधि या युद्ध करने का अवसर न हो तो निरपेक्ष रहना ही श्रेयस्कर होता है। मंडल में मध्यमा और उदासीन राजा निरपेक्ष रहने में ही अपनी भलाई समझते हैं।

युद्ध करने की स्थिति पैदा होने पर समय, स्थान और सैन्य शक्ति, आन्तरिक सुरक्षा आदि पर विशेष ध्यान देने की आवश्यकता है। युद्ध की तैयारी में मित्र देशों को साथ लेना, दुश्मन पर पीछे से हमला करवाना, सामने से स्वयं अपनी सेना के बल पर लोहा लेना, अभेद्य चक्रव्यूह की रचना, बहाने से हमला करने की योजना की आवश्यकता पड़ सकती है जिसके लिये पूरी तैयारी होनी चाहिए।

कूटनीति के चार प्रमुख अस्त्र हंै जिनका प्रयोग राजा को समय और परिस्थितियों को ध्यान में रखकर करना चाहिए- साम, दाम, दण्ड और भेद। जब मित्रता दिखाने (साम) की आवश्यकता हो तो आकर्षक उपहार आतिथ्य, समरसता और सम्बन्ध बढ़ाने के प्रयास करने चाहिए जिससे दूसरे पक्ष में विश्वास पैदा हो। ताकत का इस्तेमाल, दुश्मन के घर में आग लगाने की योजना, उसकी सेना और अधिकारियों में फूट डालना, उसके करीबी रिश्तेदारों और उच्च पदों पर स्थित कुछ लोगों को प्रलोभन देकर अपनी ओर खींचना कूटनीति के अंग हैं।

विजिगीषु एकक्षत्र राज्य कर सके, इसके लिये विदेश नीति ऐसी होनी चाहिए जिससे राष्ट्र का हित सबसे ऊपर हो देश शक्तिशाली हो, उसकी सीमाएं और साधन बढ़ें, दुश्मन कमजोर हों और प्रजा की भलाई (योगक्षेम) हो। ऐसी नीति के 6 प्रमुख अंग है-संधि, समन्वय(मित्रता) द्वैदीभाव (दुहरी नीति) आसन (ठहराव), यान (युद्ध की तैयारी) एवं विग्रह (कूटनीतिक युद्ध)। युद्ध भूमि में लड़ाई अन्तिम स्थिति है जिसका निर्णय अपनी और दुश्मन की शक्ति को तौलकर ही करनी चाहिए।

जब दुश्मन की और अपनी स्थिति एक जैसी हो, तो शान्ति बनाये रखने में ही भलाई है। सन्धि अनेक प्रकार की हो सकती है जो शान्ति और समृृद्धि में सहायक होती है जैसे हिरण्य संधि (देश को शान्ति मिले) कर्मसंधि (सेना और खजाना दोनो का लाभ) भूमि संधि (भूमि प्राप्ति)। हार की स्थिति में ऐसी संधियां भी हो सकती हैं जिनमें राज्य का कुछ हिस्सा देकर देश को बचाया जा सके। बड़ी धन राशि देकर देश को बचाया जाय (कपाल संधि)। उद्देश्य है मजबूरी में संधि जिसे अवसर पाते ही तोड़ दिया जाय। संधि सीधे दो देशों के बीच हो सकती है या आवश्यकता पडऩे पर किसी तीसरे देश को बिचौलिया बनाया जा सकता है। सन्धि में शपथ की व्यवस्था भी हो सकती है कौटिल्य के मत में इस व्यवस्था का सम्मान तभी तक करना चाहिए जब तक अपनी स्थिति दूसरे पक्ष की अपेक्षा कमजोर हो। गुप्त संधि भी की जा सकती है जिससे दोनों पक्षों में आपसी विश्वास हो और मिलकर महत्त्वपूर्ण कदम उठाने हों। सन्धि को एक तात्कालिक व्यवस्था के रूप में देखा जाना चाहिए न कि स्थायी व्यवस्था के रूप में। देश हित में संधि तोड़ देना भी विदेशी नीति का हिस्सा होता है।

बांटो और राज्य करो, कूटनीति का एक महत्त्वपूर्ण अस्त्र है। दुश्मन को बगैर युद्ध के जीतने का एक अच्छा साधन है। युगों से शासक इसका इस्तेमाल अपनी शक्ति बढ़ाने और दुश्मन को कमजोर करने के लिए करते आये हंै। कूटनीति युद्ध में जायज क्या है और नाजायज क्या, शासक इस पर ध्यान नहीं देते, जोर इस बात पर होता है कि अपने राष्ट्र की शक्ति कैसे बढ़े दुश्मन कैसे टूटे। इसके लिये षड्यन्त्र करना, दुश्मन को हर तरह से नुकसान पहुंचाना सब कुछ जायज है।

दुश्मन पर हमला करने का अच्छा अवसर तब होता है जब उससे भी अधिक शक्तिशाली राष्ट्र सामने से उसे ललकारता है ऐसी परिस्थिति में दुश्मन जिस चक्रव्यूह में फंस जाता है उससे निकलना उसके लिए कठिन होता है। जब हमला अन्य राष्ट्रों को साथ लेकर करते हैं तो जीतने पर जो लाभ होता है उसके बंटवारे के बारे में समझौता पहले से करना चाहिए ताकि युद्ध के बाद आपस में झगड़े की स्थिति न बने।

अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय सम्बन्धों के संदर्भ में अर्थशास्त्र में जो विशद व्याख्या की गई है, उसका लोहा राजनीति के पंडित, नेता, शासक सभी मानते हैं। चाणक्य नीति को अनीति कहने वालो की भी कमी नहीं है क्योंकि उनका सिद्धान्त व्यावहारिक है। मूल्य परक नहीं, क्या जायज है क्या नाजायज इसका फैसला राजा (आधुनिक संदर्भ में राष्ट्राध्यक्ष या प्रधानमंत्री जो सत्ता का कर्णधार होता है) को करना होता है, जिसके लिए राष्ट्र हित सर्वोपरि है। जो राजा राष्ट्रहित की जगह अपना और अपने सम्बन्धियों, सहयोगियों और सलाहकारों के हित को राष्ट्रहित के आगे कर देते हैं, वे स्वयं भी नष्ट होते हैं और राष्ट्र के पतन का भी कारण बनते हैं। चाणक्य ने राजा को अपनी इंद्रियों पर नियन्त्रण की सलाह दी और इसी में राष्ट्रहित का बीज मंत्र दिया-‘ राज्यस्य मूलम् इन्द्रिय जय:। ह्व

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